Impersonalism and Globe Ideology, Part 2


Jul 24, 2019 — IRELAND (SUN) —

Part One of this paper can be found here.

    meruh sikharinam aham "And of Mountains I am Meru" (Bg 10.23)

In this paper we shall discuss Mount Meru's location at the center of the Vedic universe, and why knowledge of Mount Meru is important for becoming physically and spiritually centered. The asura cosmology describes the universe as having no center or end, and creates a sense of cosmic dis-orientation in which people feel adrift in a meaningless impersonal universe. We shall point out some important instances in which this impersonal ideology has affected the so-called 'Vedic cosmology' being perpetrated by members of ISKCON. We shall also show how Srimad Bhagavatam's description of Bharata-varsha's location to Mount Meru is yet another indication that the Vedic Puranas (histories) describe our Earth as part of a continual flat-Earth plane, and not an isolated globe-shaped planet floating in space.


Various Puranas relate different occasions and circumstances when the Bhu-mandala becomes submerged in the waters of Garbodhaka Ocean, and is then raised by Varaha-deva. Usually the Earth is submerged in the water as a normal occurrence at the time of the prayala, however, the Linga and Padma Puranas narrate a time when Bhu-mandala was actually stolen and hidden by the great asura Hiranyaksha:

    "Suta said: the brother of Hiranyakashipu is known as Hiranyaksha. He was comparable to Kala the destroyer. He was the father of Andhaka the lord of the Asuras. This leading Daitya defeated all Devas. He bound the Earth that had the luster of blue lotus and took it to the nether regions. He made it his prisoner." (Linga Purana, 94.3-4)

The Padma Purana narrates the history of Hiranyaksha stealing the Earth in the passage below. Please note that after the demon Hiranyaksha was killed, the Earth (Bhu-mandala) was not placed in space, but was replaced on the head of Ananta-sesha—the Puranas describe that the great Earth-circle is held by Ananta-sesha.

    "That Hiranyaksha of an immeasurable body and very haughty removed, with his thousands of arms, the Earth along with mountains, oceans, islands, and all living beings. Having removed it out and put it on his head he entered the lower world. Then all the hosts of gods, afflicted by fear, cried. They sought the shelter of Narayana, Vishnu. Then knowing that wonder, He, Vishnu, the holder of a conch, a disc, and a mace, took up the Boar-form, existing everywhere and having no beginning, middle or end. The highest lord full of everything, having hands and feet on all sides, having large fangs and arms, struck the demon with one fang. The mean son of Diti, with his huge body pounded, died. Seeing the Earth fallen (from the demon's head), he lifted it with his fang, and putting it on Sesha's head as before, took up the form of a Tortoise. Seeing great Vishnu of the form of the hog, all deities and sages, with their bodies bowed with devotion, praised him." (Padma Purana, Vl.237.10-19)

Just as Bhu-devi was once stolen by the great asura Hiranyaksha and had to be rescued by Varaha-deva, so Bhu-devi has again been stolen by the asuras and awaits to be released by Sri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's sankirtan movement. In the present circumstance, the Bhu-mandala has not been physically stolen and dislocated, but her real form (rupa) has been mentally stolen from the minds of people, and been replaced with an ideological conception known as the Earth-globe. In previous papers we have argued that the idea of an Earth-globe floating in space actually has no basis in Vedic cosmology, and that the idea is never even mentioned in the commentaries on Vedic cosmology by Vaishnava acharyas. Despite the Vedas describing an entirely different conception of Earth, the actual understanding of the Vedic Earth has been hidden/covered and usurped by a foreign or non-vedic cosmology. We have further argued that this the modern cosmology which presents Earth as a globe-shaped floating in space actually has no factual or scientific basis, and that it is a purely an ideological construct. However, many centuries of ideological propaganda (so-called 'science'), and in recent decades the use of fraudulent and deceptive means such as photographs and videos of a supposed Earth globe floating in space, have convinced the people of the world that these images of Earth are the unquestioned reality.

On this illusory conception of an Earth-globe floating purposelessly in an infinite, impersonal darkness, the bewildered people have lost their center, and have been thrown into spiritual dis-orientation, confusion, and derangement. The center of the Vedic Earth is Mount Meru. Mount Meru is the central axis of the universe by which one can get their bearings, orientation, and sense of direction both physically and spiritually. The modern materialistic cosmology teaches that the universe has no center—that it came from nothing and evolved without any spiritual direction or intelligence; it further teaches that the Earth is a globe spinning purposelessly in the void of an infinite, ever-expanding dark space. Since modern cosmologists cannot determine an edge or end to the universe, they obviously cannot speak of the universe having a center. It is not at all surprising, therefore, that people in a world without either a spiritual or material center have become dis-orientated, traumatized, and maddened due to having to live with cosmological conceptions that create such imbalance and dis-location.

The Earth globe idea goes hand in hand with other atheistic ideas such as big bang, and the theory of Evolution. In a universe that supposedly came from nothing, and evolved without direction or purpose, and produced life without soul, on a supposed planet that floats aimlessly in an ever-expanding dark Godless space, it is not surprising that the poor people have lost their true cosmic bearings, and thus their sense of spiritual direction. The idea of having no center is terrifyingly expressed by the Irish poet WB Yeats in his nightmarish poem, The Second Coming. The word gyre used here refers to a spiral, spinning, or circular motion much like a vortex in which the falcon loses sight of his master:

    "Turning and turning in the widening gyre
    The falcon cannot see the falconer
    Things fall apart; the center cannot hold
    Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world
    The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere
    The ceremony of innocence is drowned;
    The best lack all conviction, while the worst
    Are full of passionate intensity.
    Surely some revelation is at hand;
    Surely the Second Coming is at hand."
    (W. B. Yeats, The Second Coming)

"Things fall apart; the center cannot hold." The asuric teachings that there is no center to the universe, and that the universe is infinitely expansive without boundaries, creates a paradigm in which the individual feels adrift in a universe with no center, end, or purpose to it.

    "They say that this world is unreal, with no foundation, no God in control" (Bg 16.8)

In this cosmic abyss there are no moral absolutes, nor any idea that one's actions in this life will be the cause of births in future lives in different parts of the universe. It is the perfect ideological breeding ground for asuras to flourish, and cause catastrophic physical and spiritual destruction in the world. In such material and spiritual confusion the people become easy prey for the asuras: "The best lack all conviction, while the worst are full of passionate intensity". In the midst of the chaos, the spiritually intuitive W. B. Yeats felt instinctively that 'surely some revelation is at hand; surely the Second Coming is at hand'. Only decades later, the Sound Incarnation of Godhead manifested to restore dharma in the world:

    "So Krishna comes here, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gita, paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca dushkritam [Bg. 4.8]. So Krishna appeared to kill so many demons. At that time... Whenever there will be demons, Krishna will come. At the present moment, now, the world is full of demons. Therefore Krishna has come in the form of Hare Krishna.

    Devotees: Hare Krishna.

    Prabhupada: That is Krishna avatara. Kali-yuge nama-rupe avatara. So don't think that Krishna, this vibration Krishna, is different from that Krishna. The same Krishna. The same Krishna.

    (Srimad Bhagavatam 1.16.23, Los Angeles, July 13 1974)


An understanding of Mount Meru's location on the Bhu-mandala is one of the essential aspects of Vedic knowledge that has been disastrously lost in the Age of Kali with the result that people experience a complete physical and spiritual dis-orientation in regards to their relative location in the brahmanda (universe). Mount Meru is connected to the lotus flower that originally sprang from the navel of Garbhodakashayi Vishnu.

The lotus flower later expanded into the physical Earth (Bhu-mandala), and the center of the lotus became the gigantic Mount Meru. Lord Brahma, along with the devas such as Indra, Vayu, and Agni, etc., have their celestial abodes on top of Mount Meru.

Jambudvipa is the inner whorl of the lotus (SB 5.16.5) and Mount Meru is the pericarp of the lotus

Knowledge of Mount Meru as the physical center of the universe takes us out of the false ego of thinking oneself the center of the universe, and reconnects us again with the actual center of the universe and source of all creation—Sri Vishnu. The Wikipedia article for Axis Mundi describes it as follows:

    "The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven and Earth. As the celestial pole and geographic pole, it expresses a point of connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet. At this point travel and correspondence is made between higher and lower realms. Communication from lower realms may ascend to higher ones and blessings from higher realms may descend to lower ones and be disseminated to all. The spot functions as the omphalos (navel), the world's point of beginning.

    The image relates to the center of the earth (perhaps like an umbilical providing nourishment). It may have the form of a natural object (a mountain, a tree, a vine, a stalk, a column of smoke or fire) or a product of human manufacture (a staff, a tower, a ladder, a staircase, a maypole, a cross, a steeple, a rope, a totem pole, a pillar, a spire). Its proximity to heaven may carry implications that are chiefly religious (pagoda, temple mount, minaret, church) or secular (obelisk, lighthouse, rocket, skyscraper). The image appears in religious and secular contexts. The axis mundi symbol may be found in cultures utilizing shamanic practices or animist belief systems, in major world religions, and in technologically advanced "urban centers". In Mircea Eliads opinion, "Every Microcosm, every inhabited region, has a Centre; that is to say, a place that is sacred above all."

It is interesting to note here how the author of the above article also links the axis mundi to an umbilical (the lotus stem that grows from the navel of Sri-Vishnu is like an umbilical cord). Although almost every ancient culture speaks of the the Holy Mountain (the abode of the gods), the Vedic teaching of a 100,000 yojana (800,000 mile) high golden mountain is simply dismissed by the asuric propagandists as a quaint reminder of primitive mythology that has been rendered obsolete by discoveries made in the scientific and space age. Although the asuras (among themselves) acknowledge the existence of Mount Meru, (and often try to capture it from the devas), it suits their purposes to control other peoples perception of reality by replacing knowledge of the Bhu-mandala (Earth circle) with an ideological conception of Earth known as the Earth globe.

Although the Earth globe ideology is in direct opposition to the Vedic system, at the present moment the ideologues within ISKCON cannot see the opposition due to being conditioned by the Earth globe paradigm. The devotees working in this field are mis-guided in their attempts in trying to reconcile the Earth globe idea with the Bhu-mandala concept. Instead of working to dispel the Earth globe ideology and establish the new paradigm of Bhu-mandala, the very opposite is taking place, namely that the Bhu-mandala is relegated to the nebulous realms of 'other dimensions', whilst the Earth-globe idea remains in place as the firm and unshakable reality. But if the Earth globe is the reality, then where is the center or axis mundi to be found in the visual images of Earth produced by NASA? According to NASA, if you take a rocket into space, all that is to be seen (except for distant stars) is dark space. But according to Srimad Bhagavatam, if you took a rocket high above the Earth plane, you would see the rest of Bhu-mandala with Mount Meru (axis mundi) in the center:

The Srimad Bhagavatam narrates a history of Krishna taking Arjuna in His flying chariot to retrieve the dead sons of a brahmana from the realm of Maha-Vishnu. As they crossed the universe they looked down upon the Bhu-mandala with seven islands and oceans in their wonderful concentric pattern:

    "Having thus advised Arjuna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead had Arjuna join Him on His divine chariot, and together they set off toward the west. The Lord's chariot passed over the seven islands (sapta-dvipa) of the middle universe, each with its ocean (sa-sindhums ca) and its seven principal mountains." (SB 10.89.46)

Sage Agastya also spoke of the time he looked from Mount Meru and saw the seven islands and oceans:

    "I saw that place, that sage, and myself at the top of mount Meru. О king, I then saw the seven oceans, the seven principal mountains, and the seven islands constituting the Earth. Even now I remain thinking of that glorious world and how and when I could get there (again)." (Varaha Purana, 69:16-18)

If the Earth-globe conception is not asuric and impersonalistic, then where is the rest of the Bhu-mandala in NASA's images of Earth floating isolated in dark space. Where is the majestic Mount Meru? Where are the seven islands and oceans of Bhu-mandala? When NASA presents images of the Earth as a globe in space, it is not because the Earth really is that way and our imperfect senses simply cannot detect the rest of Bhu-mandala which is in 'another dimension'; rather the Earth appears as a globe floating in space simply because the asuras behind these presentations have displayed a false concept of the Earth. The images of astronauts above an Earth-globe in space are simply movies made in film studios here on the terra firma. The reason why Mount Meru is not seen from outer space is because no one from NASA or any other space agency has been to outer space in order to see it. If American astronauts had left the Earth and traveled a purported 238,900 miles to the moon, for sure they would have seen the rest of Bhu-mandala. [NB: the actual height of the moon above the Earth according to Srimad Bhagavatam is 1,600,000 miles, so Srimad Bhagavatam exposes yet another detail of their story to be false].


In the discussion below Tamala Krishna Goswami comes to the conclusion that since American astronauts make no report of seeing Mount Meru, then they must have never left the Earth. Srila Prabhupada agrees with Tamala Krishna Goswami's analysis, and says that is the point he has been making from the beginning:

    Tamala Krisha: …Every explanation is given in the Bhagavatam, and it's all in contradiction to the so-called scientists. They say that the reason we experience day and night is that the earth is rotating on its axis and at the same time circumambulating the sun.

    Prabhupada: Double. Double motion.

    Tamala Krishna: Yes. So they say, therefore, when you're on this side and the sun is here, you won't see, but when it turns around, then you'll see the sun. But the Bhagavatam does not agree with that description. The Bhagavatam says that you don't see the sun because it's blocked by the Meru. The sun is moving, and Meru is blocking. And they never even heard of Meru. What is their knowledge? Such a big mountain and they don't even know about it. That means they never left the Earth's sphere. They never went more than a few hundred miles in the air, Srila Prabhupada. It's all lies.

    Prabhupada: All. That I am speaking from the very beginning. Now it is proved. They are also saying. (Room Conversation, July 8, 1977, Mayapur)

Srila Prabhupada says "Now it has been proved. They are also saying." Despite the controlled media's massive hype and propaganda surrounding the fiftieth anniversary of the moon-landing, Srila Prabhupada's words have proven prophetic as we now have tens of thousands of articles, books, and video documentaries that expose the so-called space travels as a colossal hoax. On the basis of Srimad Bhagavatam, it is the duty of those responsible for the TOVP to see that these hoax images of the Earth are exposed as such. The hoax began with the fake moon-landing and continues to the present day with images of so-called astronauts on board a so-called International Space Station:

    Jayapataka: ...exhibit the farce of modern science...Farce of modern science, and every philosophy and science group, where they are just cheating the public. Then exhibit how Krishna consciousness is showing the real way.

    Prabhupada: Yes. So do that in this planetarium. If we can expose that they never went to the moon planet, their life will be finished." (Morning Walk June 4 1976, Los Angeles)


We have discussed above how the asura cosmology creates a sense of being both physically and spiritually lost and adrift in an impersonal universe without a center, an end, or a purpose. Life within this godless paradigm is characterized by fear, instability, constant movement, and uncertainty. An understanding of our bearings in relation to Mount Meru at the center of the universe, will enable us to regain both physical and spiritual stability. Physical and mental stability comes by understanding that the Earth itself is not moving. The great Earth-circle is held by Ananata-sesha, and is neither floating or moved by air (vayu) as is the case with the other stars and planets like the sun and moon (SB 5.23.3). Unlike the modern asura cosmology which states that the Earth along with the other planets are moving at terrific speed through infinite space, the Vedic cosmology states that the Earth is fixed, stable, and unmoving, and that the other stars and planets—though moving—move around a fixed center known as the Druva or the Pole star. Thus, the stars and planets are not adrift and flying around an infinite universe with no destination or purpose ahead. The stars and planets are all contained within the four billion diameter shell of the universe, and simply rotate around a fixed center (Druva).

The asura presentation of Earth as a globe-shaped spinning on its axis at a 1,000 mph, whilst moving at 66,667 mph around the sun, whilst the sun itself along with the other planets moves at 514,000 mph around the galaxy, and the galaxy itself moves at some unknown speed to some unknown destination, is all calculated to create an idea of the cosmos that encourages the hectic mode of passion lifestyle that characterizes Kali-yuga (wherein people are constantly on the move with never a free moment to contemplate the meaning of their lives). All of the above descriptions of the Earth and other planets being adrift and moving at terrific speed through an infinite universe are simply hocus pocus to spellbind people into an artificial construct of reality. By understanding that the Earth does not move (as every scientific experiment actually demonstrates), and that the stars and planets orbit around a fixed center, the hectic mode of passion lifestyle will grind to a halt, and one will regain stability, gravitas, calmness, and a sense of purpose in Sri-Krishna's creation. In reality the Earth itself is stopped and does not move. Therefore let us learn to walk consciously and without anxiety on the plane of the Earth.

    "Arjuna said: O Krishna, what are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in transcendence? How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?" (Bg 2.54)

Would we walk at a different pace upon the Earth if we knew the Earth itself was not moving? Would we walk with a different attitude if we found out the Earth is not a globe, and that there is more Earth? Would we walk without fear if we truly accepted the nature of Creator and creation as described in Srimad Bhagavatam? As the rest of the people zoom around at an almost impossible pace, just pause for a moment and contemplate that the Earth itself does not move. See how it feels to think that the Earth itself is not moving. One merged in transcendence will sit and walk upon the Earth with the understanding that the Earth is as it is described in the Puranas by transcendentalists such as Narada Muni, Vyasadeva, and Sukadeva Goswami.

Krishna's stress-free and happy manner of walking on the Earth is compared to the stride of a regal elephant (dvirada-raja, SB 10.35.24-25)

    "As Krishna respectfully greets His well-wishing friends, His eyes roll slightly as if from intoxication. He wears a flower garland, and the beauty of His soft cheeks is accentuated by the brilliance of His golden earrings and the whiteness of His face, which has the color of a badara berry. With His cheerful face resembling the moon, lord of the night, the Lord of the Yadus moves with the grace of a regal elephant. Thus He returns in the evening, delivering the cows of Vraja from the heat of the day." (SB

Compare this to the mode of walking in Kali-yuga:

    "In the demoniac way of civilization, people are interested in getting a body constructed in such a way that when they walk on the street, the Earth will tremble." (SB 3.17.17 purport)

As people go to and fro from work in an agitated, stressed, angry, unsmiling, and unhappy manner, would their whole soul-killing civilization not collapse if they learnt that they'd been lied to, and that the Earth they walk upon is not a globe-shaped planet spinning and flying through space?


Knowledge of the location of Bharata-varsha to Mount Meru negates all speculation in regards to the idea that Bharata-varsha is a supposed Earth-globe floating, spinning, and hurtling through space. The current preaching from the TOVP that the Earth is a globe does not correctly convey our true location and relation to the cosmic center or Mount Meru (as it is explained in Srimad Bhagavatam), and is another indication of how the impersonalist ideology has affected so-called Vedic Cosmology. The following verse from Srimad Bhagavatam clearly describes the location of Bharata-varsha in Jambudvipa:

    "Similarly, south of Ilavrita-varsha and extending from east to west are three great mountains named (from north to south) Nishadha, Hemakuta and Himalaya. Each of them is 10,000 yoganas [80,000 miles] high. They mark the boundaries of the three varshas named Hari-varsha, Kimpurusha-varsha and Bharata-varsha [India]". (SB 5.16.9)

    The description of the universe in Srimad Bhagavatam begins with a description of Jambudvipa. Jambudvipa is the central island of the Earth and is measured at 100,000 yojana (800,000 miles). The above verse mentions Ilavrita-varsha which is the central region (varsha) of Jambudvipa where Mount Meru is located as seen in the image below. The verse states that by going south of Ilavrita-varsha (evam dakshinenelavritam) one eventually comes to Bharata-varsha. Notice how the above verse is describing movement along a continuous landscape, (not movement through space). Going south (dakshinena) from Ilavrita-varsha to Bharata-varsha one must pass three huge mountains (Nishadha, Hemakuta, and Himavat/Himalaya). These mountains are 10,000 yojana (80,000 miles) high, and hundreds of thousands of miles long. Between these mountains are the tracts of land known as Hari-varsha, Kimpurusha-varsha, and Bharata-varsha. The Puranas including Srimad Bhagavatam describe the fascinating civilizations and conditions in these other parts of the Earth.

By simply following the description in Srimad Bhagavatam we can understand the actual location of Bharata-varsha to the rest of Jambudvipa. Mount Meru stands in the center of Jambudvipa in a region called Ilavrita-varsha. Going south from Ilavrita-varsha one passes the Nishadha Mountain which is 80,000 miles high, 16,000 miles wide and 100,000 yojanas (800,000 miles) long. After crossing this great mountain one comes to a tract of land called Hari-varsha which is 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles) across. After crossing Hari-varsha one comes to the Hemakuta Mountain which is also 80,000 miles high and 16,000 miles wide, but slightly shorter in length at 90,000 yogana (720,000 miles). After crossing the Hemakuta Mountain, one comes to a tract of land called Kimpurusha-varsha which like the other varshas is 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles) across. After crossing Kimpurusha-varsha one comes to the Himalaya which as mentioned is 80,000 miles high, 16,000 miles wide, but again slightly shorter in length at 80,000 yogana (640,000 miles) across [the decline in the length of the great border mountains is due to the curve of Jambudvipa]. It should be noted that although we have a mountain in India called Himalaya, the Mountain mentioned here is 80,000 yogana (640,000 miles) across. Srimad Bhagavatam describes the great Himalaya as 80,000 miles high, 16,000 miles wide, whilst Vayu Purana and Matsya Purana confirm the length of Himalaya as being 80,000 yogana , 640,000 miles long:

    "And mountains Himalaya and Srngavan are each eighty thousand yogana (640,000) miles in length." (Vayu Purana: 34.24-31)

    "The Mount Himavan [Himalaya] is 80,000 yoganas (640,000 miles), from east to west." (Matsya Purana CXIII, verse 25)

Himalaya creates the boundary between Bharata-varsha and Kimpurusha varsha. Lord Shiva confirms the 640,000 mile length of Bharata-varsha's east-west border as follows:

    "lsvara said: What is remembered as Jambudvlpa is exactly at the center of the Earth. It is divided into nine regions, 0 beautiful woman, known as the different Varshas ( regions). Therein, the first Varsha is Bharata. It is also remembered as being divided into nine parts. From south to north it measures nine thousand yoganas (72,000 miles). The distance from east to west is eighty thousand yogana (640,000 miles). Himavan is in the north. The ksiroda (ocean) is in the south." (Skanda Purana: VII.I.ll.6-8)

After crossing the great Himalaya, one comes to Bharata-varsha which is also 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles across from north to south). Our own region of the Earth is situated somewhere in this vast southern territory of Bharata-varsha. Thus Bharata-varsha is not floating above Meru, nor is it floating in the void of space, rather it is situated on the plane of Jambudvipa along with the other varshas and great mountains that form part of the Earth's great landscape. The great civilizations along this Earth plane are all described through-out the various Puranas.


The use of the word 'south' is important to help us get our bearings in relation to Mount Meru. The directions north and south indicate directions along the horizontal plane, such as when we speak of North London or South London, or North England and South England. The globe ideology has confused everyone into believing that north and south mean up and down. When we look at a map of the world on a globe, for example, Canada is at the top or upper part of the globe, whilst Argentina is at the bottom or lower part of the globe. Thus people think of north and south as meaning the up and down side of a globe. However, in Vedic cosmology north, south, east, and west refer to the directions along the horizontal plane of Bhu-mandala. Up and down refer to the directions that are above (uparishtat) and below (adhastat) the plane of Bhu-mandala. Thus the sun is measured at 800,000 miles above the plane of the Earth, whilst Ananta-sesha is located at a certain measurement below the plane of the Earth. This is important to consider in relation to the location of Bharata-varsha. If Sukadeva Goswami had wished to inform us that Bharata-varsha is a globe floating above the plane of Bhu-mandala, he would have mentioned its altitude above the Earth along with the other planets that are mentioned in chapter 22 of the fifth canto. Thus we cannot accept Mayesa dasa's idea that Bharata-varsha is a planet floating above Bhu-mandala, as Sukadeva Goswami clearly describes Bharata-varsha as south (dakshinena) of Ilavrita-varsha (where Mount Meru is located), not above (uparishtat) Ilavrita-varsha. The distance from Mount Meru to Bharata-varsha is a measurement for a stretch of land along the horizontal plane of the Earth-circle; it is not a measurement for the distance of a planet situated vertically above the Earth-circle. The measurements for the planets situated vertically above the Earth are provided in chapter 22 of the fifth canto of Srimad Bhagavatam, and there is no mention of a second Earth globe floating above the Earth-circle itself.

Since Bharata-varsha is located on the southern side of Jambudvipa and (hence on the vast plane of Bhu-mandala), it cannot be regarded as a separate Earth planet floating in space—that is not what is being described! Just as Italy is south of Europe and part of the same Earth plane, so Bharata-varsha is south of Jambudwipa and likewise part of the same Earth plane. This is the obvious conclusion. If Italy is south of Germany, then Germany is obviously to the north of Italy. If Bharata-varsha is at the south of Jambudwipa, then Jambudwipa is obviously to the north of Bharata-varsha. Thus going South from Meru to Bharata-varsha is like this:

    "The Nishadha is to the south of the Meru. Still south of it is the Mountain Hemakuta. The Himavata is to its south." (Linga Purana, 49.4)

Going back north from Bharata-varsha to Meru one passes the same mountains and varshas in the opposite direction:

    "The varsha south of the Himavat is known as Bharata. Hemakuta is beyond that. The varsha within it is called Kimpurusha. Nishadha is beyond Hemakuta. Its varsha is called Hari-varsha. Beyond Hari-varsha is the splendid Ilavrta-varsha and Mount Meru." (Linga Purana 49.7-10)

The above descriptions from Srimad Bhagavatam and other Puranas unquestionably locate our area of the Earth in Bharata-varsha as part of a greater flat-Earth landscape. So there we have it! There is no argument! And Srila Prabhupada instructed that the Vedic cosmology be presented in the Temple of Vedic Planetarium as it is described in Srimad Bhagavatam:

    Prabhupada: We are intending to make a huge planetarium... Exactly to the description of Fifth Canto, we want." (Room Conversation, May 8 1977, Hrishikesh)

    Prabhupada: ...from the Bhagavatam. So this should be mentioned. It is not only a temple, but a planetarium according to Bhagavatam, where which planet is situated, where is Vaikunthaloka, where is Goloka Vrndavana, where is Mahar... (Morning Walk, Feb 9, 1976, Mayapur)

So who can argue with the above description of where Bharata-varsha is situated on the flat-Earth landscape? Since the complete north-south distance of Bharata-varsha is 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles), residents at the very southern tip of Bharata-varsha would have to cross all of this area before coming to the mainland of Jambudvipa; however, those on the northern part of Bharata-varsha would be only a few hundred miles from the mainland. In any case, even 9,000 yogana or 72,000 miles is not an inconceivable distance to cover before coming to the rest of Jambudvipa. The Srimad Bhagavatam's cosmology is thus unquestionably describing a greater Earth plane with more land and ocean surrounding our known Earth area. Whether travelling by sea or vimana or simply travelling by yoga power, the rest of Jambudvipa is only a few thousand miles away. Despite the short distance, people from Bharata-varsha are incapable of travelling to Jambudvipa without the requisite qualification that comes from Vedic yajna.


Rajasekhara dasa's childish jubilation at having 'torpedoed' the idea of Sailing to Jambudvipa only reveals his own lack of faith in Srimad Bhagavatam's teaching that our known Earth continues into other areas of the greater Earth circle. As is usually the case with Rajasekhara dasa, his own deviation from guru and shastra got torpedoed and sunk in the process. Rajasekhara dasa can only continue his belief in the Earth globe at the cost of denying his faith in Srimad Bhagavatam. Since Srimad Bhagavatam clearly states that there is a land mass stretching for hundreds of thousands of miles of land to the north of Bharata-varsha, the idea that Bharata-varsha is an isolated Earth globe floating in space stands in complete opposition to the reality described by Sukadeva Goswami. If one goes north around the supposed globe, one travels in a loop and comes back to the same point. In this conception of reality there is no more Earth to speak of, and the rest of Jambudvipa simply disappears from existence. However, according to the Sriimad Bhagavatam's description, the rest of Jambudvipa is further north along the Earth plane by a distance of only a few thousand miles from our known area of the Earth. By north we mean in the direction of the North Star [Druva], not the north on a compass which simply takes one in circles around the local north pole. By going north following the north star, one eventually comes to Mount Meru [the north star is above Mount Meru].

As we have pointed out with many instances, Srila Prabhupada's explicit and repeated instruction was to present the version of Srimad Bhagavatam at the Temple of Vedic Planetarium, but rather than accepting the Srimad Bhagavatam's clear description of our known Earth's location in Jambudvipa, and rather than following his own spiritual master's instruction, Rajasekhara dasa continues in his nescient ('not knowing') conviction that the Vedas describe the Earth as a globe floating in space. Rajasekhara dasa clearly does not believe in the Srimad Bhagavatam's cosmological description of the names, distances and directions of one place on the Earth to another. The historical accounts in Srimad Bhagavatam and Mahabharata inform us that Yudhisthira Maharaja and Pariksit Maharaja were ruling the whole of Jambudvipa from India only 5,000 years ago. If India is part of a 24,900 mile globe-shaped planet, then where is the rest of Yudhisthira's 800,000 mile kingdom? Supporters of the Earth globe ideology cannot answer this question with reference to Srimad Bhagavatam because Srimad Bhagavatam describes regions of India (Mathura, etc.) as part of an Earth-circle, not as part of a globe floating in space. Since Bharata-varsha is described as part of Jambudvipa, and Jambudvipa is described as part of Bhu-mandala (a 500 million yogana circular plane), then the clear conclusion of Vedic cosmology is that we on live on part of a colossal flat-Earth, not an isolated globe floating in space.


We can measure the distance between Bharata-varsha and Mount Meru in the following way: starting at the southern-most part of Bharata-varsha to the beginning of the great Himavata or Himalaya, the distance is 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles). After crossing Bharata-varsha one comes to the Himavata/Himalaya Mountain which is 2,000 yogana (16,000 miles) wide. After crossing Himalaya one comes to Kimpurusha-varsha which is 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles) across. After crossing Kimpurusha-varsha one comes to Hemakuta Mountain which is 2,000 yogana (16,000 miles) across. After crossing Hemakuta mountain ones comes to Hari-Varsha which is 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles) across. After crossing Hari-varsha one comes to the Nishadha Mountain which is 2,000 yogana (16,000 miles across). After crossing Nishadha Mountain one travels a further 9,000 yogana (72,000 miles) and comes to the foot of Mount Meru. Thus the distance from the southern shore of Bharata-varsha to the foot of Mount Meru is 42,000 yogana (336,000 miles). The distance to the very center of Mount Meru is 50,000 yogana (400,000 miles or half the length of Jambudvipa).

The Pandavas made the journey to Mount Meru on several occasions:

    "…the brothers continued their journey, seeing in the distance the cloud-covered peak of Mount Himavat. Eventually passing that great mountain, they crossed over a desert and came at last to Mount Meru where lay the abode of the gods." (Krishna Dharma dasa, Mahabharata, Part Two, Chapter 35, The Pandavas Retire)

The base of Mount Meru is 16,000 yogana (128,000 miles). Mount Meru has a height of 84,000 yogana (672,000 miles) above the ground, and 16,000 yogana (128,000 miles) is below the ground forming the root of the Mountain:

    "Amidst these divisions, or varshas, is the varsha named Ilavrta, which is situated in the middle of the whorl of the lotus. Within Ilavrta-varsha is Sumeru Mountain, which is made of gold. Sumeru Mountain is like the pericarp of the lotus-like Bhu-mandala planetary system. The mountain's height is the same as the width of Jambudvipa—or, in other words, 100,000 yoganas [800,000 miles]. Of that, 16,000 yoganas [128,000 miles] are within the earth, and therefore the mountain's height above the earth is 84,000 yoganas [672,000 miles]. The mountain's width is 32,000 yoganas [256,000 miles] at its summit and 16,000 yoganas [128,000 miles] at its base." (SB 5.16.7)

Despite reading that Mount Meru is made of gold, stands 100,000 yogana (800,000 miles) in height, and is some hundreds of thousands of miles to the north of Bharata-varasha, Sadaputa dasa—who has been one of the major influences in developing ISKCON's Vedic Cosmology—states that 'The Pamir Mountains can be identified with Mount Meru. ' By identifying Mount Meru with an insignificant mountain to the north of India, a proper understanding of the actual Mount Meru gets lost in transit, and life on the so-called Earth globe goes on as before. In such a conception of Mount Meru, we are no closer to understanding our relative position to the center of the cosmos, or to understanding that we (in Bharata-varsha) are part of a greater flat-Earth landscape—not residents of an Earth-globe floating in space. The reason why Sukadeva Goswami states that he will give the rupa (names) and mana (measurements) for the various places on the Bhu-gola (see SB 5.19.4) is so that we will not mistake such places as the Pamir Mountains (which is in Bharata-varsha) with the gigantic Mount Meru (which is in Ilavrta-varsha—the center of Jambudvipa). Sadaputa dasa's mistaken association of Mount Meru with the Pamir Mountains is a clear example of a devotee not following the description provided, and showing no obvious faith in the Earth's landscape as it is described in Srimad Bhagavatam. If devotees actually accepted and believed in Bharata-varsha's location in Jambudvipa (as it described in Srimad Bhagavatam), then they would actively preach against the globe ideology, not support it.

The idea widely accepted in ISKCON that Mount Meru, Jambudvipa, and the other islands and oceans of Bhu-mandala are in a higher dimension and thus invisible to our senses is a completely misleading idea that bears all the hallmarks of impersonalism as we have discussed in a previous paper entitled, "The Rest of the Earth is not in Another Dimension".

We have pointed out in our previous debate with Danavir Goswami how the same influence of impersonalism pervades his work. For example, when Srimad Bhagavatam's description of the Earth requires Danavir Goswami to present the nine islands of Bharata-varsha as part of Jambudvipa, Danavir Goswami correctly shows Bharata-varsha in context with the rest of Jambudvipa. The image below is a still at 16.07 minutes into Part 1 of Danavir Goswami's Vedic Cosmos video depicting one of Bharata-varsha nine islands as the supposed globe-shaped Earth planet:

Danavir Goswami's Earth-globe conditioning is obvious in the presentation of Bharata-khanda as a globe-shaped planet floating on water, rather than as a mass of land surrounded by water as it is described in the Puranas. Moreover, since Danavir Goswami has to find a way to reconcile Bharata-khanda as the familiar globe floating in space, he simply switches from presenting Bharata-khanda as part of Jambudvipa to presenting Bharata-khanda as an Earth-globe floating in space. However, notice that when Bharata-varsha requires to be presented as a globe in space, the rest of Jambudvipa's landscape becomes an obvious problem, and is seen to suddenly vanish from the picture. In the image below, taken from 0.09 minutes into part 2 of Danavir Goswami's Vedic Cosmos documentary, Danavir Goswami magically disappears the Bhu-mandala depicted minutes earlier in the video, and the Earth is no longer floating in water off the coast of Jambudvipa, but is suddenly back to its old self as a globe floating in dark space:

What happened to the 800,000 mile salt-water ocean and the rest of the 800,000 mile island of Jambudvipa as it was depicted in the earlier image? In our previous articles on "Flat-Earth in Mahabharata" and "Flat-Earth in Ramayana" we gave details of the Vedic history which tell of Yudhisthira, for example, governing the entire Jambudvipa only 5,000 years ago. King Yudhisthira ruled the entire Jambudvipa from India, but where is his kingdom in the above presentation of Earth as a globe floating in space? The rest of Jambudvipa has simply been 'impersonalized'. The Earth globe ideology is promoted as the 'reality', and meanwhile the actual reality of the Bhu-mandala which Sukadeva Goswami is attempting to explain, is concealed behind the rhetoric of it being 'too subtle' to see, or in 'another dimension', and thus not capable of being comprehended.

I do not by any means wish to suggest that either Sadaputa dasa or Danavir Goswami are impersonalists, but merely to point out how the idea of Earth in modern asura cosmology (which is of non-Vedic origin, and intrinsically impersonal) has influenced Western devotees who seem obviously conditioned by modern scientific and materialistic conceptions of what is real. I hope the description of Bharata-varsha's location on Jambudvipa and distance to Mount Meru is clear to everyone. Let us all please accept the location as it described by Vedic authorities, and not speculate on the basis of the modern assumption that Earth is a globe floating in space. Bharata-varsha is part of the greater Jambudvipa landscape and the movements of the sun, the creation of day and night, seasons, eclipses, etc., have to be explained with reference to this flat-Earth model. We will address Srila Prabhupada's numerous statements that Bharata-varsha is 'this Earth planet' in a later paper called Following Srila Prabhupada in Presenting the Earth at the Temple of Vedic Planetarium.


Since this paper specifically addresses the influence of impersonalism in Vedic cosmology we shall mention again the TOVP's depiction of the seven islands and oceans of Bhu-mandala which have been depicted here as voids in circles of space:

The islands and oceans of Bhu-mandala are certainly not described in Srimad Bhagavatam as circles voids in space. In the Srimad Bhagavatam, Sukadeva Goswami describes the great mountains, trees, rivers, people, animals, birds, and aquatics that inhabit the islands and oceans of Bhu-mandala. The above image completely 'impersonalizes' the rest of the Earth and basically renders Sukadeva Goswami's words as meaningless—what relevance has a void in space? By presenting the Earth's islands and oceans as voids in space, Sukadeva Goswami's description of these other parts of a greater Earth will not be taken seriously. The above depiction of Bhu-mandala completely losses the idea conveyed by Sukadeva Goswami in Srimad Bhagavatam, namely that the Earth is a great circular landscape, and that our own area of the Earth (in Bharata-varsha) continues into other areas of the greater Earth-circle. The TOVP will not create a revolution in the world simply by presenting some vague model of the universe which depicts the islands and oceans of Bhu-mandala as voids in circles of space; the thing that is going to cause shock-waves through-out the world is the news that there is no Earth globe, and that our known Earth is part of a greater Earth circle.

Further influences of impersonalism can be seen in the absence of any depiction of the universal shell in the models for the TOVP. In order to know where we are in the universe, we have to know not only the center of the universe, but also the end of the universe. The Srimad Bhagavatam describes how all of the features of the universe are contained within a round, or egg-shaped shell (anda-koshah) measuring 500 million yogana (four billion miles) in diameter:

    andakoso bahir ayam pancasat-koti (SB 3.11.40)

The image above shows the globe-shaped universe with the Garbhodaka Ocean filling the bottom half of the universal shell. Ananta-sesha resides on the Garbhodaka Ocean and holds the great Earth circle on His hoods. The image below, by contrast, shows a model of the universal form presented by the Temple of Vedic Planetarium, but there is nothing here to suggest to the viewer that the brahmanda (universal egg) has a ball-like shape, and thus has an end.

The conception of having a boundary is important to put across because we must know that we are confined in the world of maya. The universe is not an infinite limitless expanse without borders or form as the asuras propagate. The statements by NASA's 'astrophysicists' that the universe goes on for indefinite billions of light years is simply propaganda. The so-called 'astrophysicists' are nothing more than hacks who are paid to create a false construct of reality. The universe has a definite shape and size because Sri-Krishna creates everything with form (rupa). Srimad Bhagavatam describes the virat-rupa or form of the universe, and that is what is meant to be displayed at the Temple of Vedic Planetarium.

The absence of a round shell-like structure means that there is no indication of the Garbhodaka Ocean. Although the Garbhodaka ocean takes up half the space in the universe, it is not even represented here. The Garbhodaka Ocean needs to be depicted along with Ananta-Sesha holding up the Bhu-mandala. These things can all be nicely represented if the right information is given to the artists and construction team. Again the absence of the universal shell, the Garbhodaka Ocean, and Ananta-sesha are all subtle influences of the impersonalist asura ideology. We are not suggesting by any means that the devotees involved in the creation of these models are impersonalists or asuras, but just to point out that they are working from the wrong conception, and hence creating images that are impersonal. All of these features (Ananta-sesha, Garbodaka Ocean, and the shell or covering of the universe) are specifically mentioned by Srila Prabhupada in his letter to S. L. Dhani (see points 9 and 10):

    "Now here in India, we are planning construction of a very large "Vedic Planetarium" or "Temple of Understanding". Within the planetarium we will construct a huge detailed model of the universe as described in the text of the fifth canto of Srimad Bhagavatam. Within the planetarium the model will be studied by onlookers from different levels by use of escalators. Detailed information will be given on open verandas at the different levels by means of dioramas, charts, films, etc.

    The planetarium is planned to be approximately 400 feet high, and will have floor space of approximately 90,000 sq, ft.. The model will depict: (from top to bottom)

    1) The lower planetary system (pataladi-saptaloka)
    2) The earthly planetary system (bhu-mandala with Sumeru in center, seven islands (sapta-dvipa), seven oceans (sapta-samudra), Manosattara Parvata, Lokaloka Parvata, Alokavarsha
    3) The Bhuvarloka (Siddha-caranadi-loka)
    4) The upper Planetary system (Svarga-loka) beginning from the sun, showing with electrical apparatus both its horizontal and vertical rotations, Rahu, the Moon, the Naksatras, the other seven planets ending with Saturn (Saniscara), the Saptarsis, and Dhruvaloka with Ksirodakasayi Vishnu on the on the Ksirodaka Ocean.
    5) Maharloka
    6) Janaloka
    7) Tapaloka
    8) Satyaloka
    9) Garbhodakasayi Visnu lying on the Sesanaga on the Garbhodaka Ocean
    10) The seven coverings of the universe

    11) Sivaloka
    12) Karanarnavasayi Vishnu lying on the Karana-samudra
    13) Impersonal bramajyoti
    14) Vaikuntha with the various Visnumurtis
    15) Goloka Vrindavana

    This model (approximately 200 feet high and 100 feet wide will be engineered to suspend from the structure of the dome and rotate according to the real movements of the planets. The plans for this very large project are being taken soley from the references found in fifth canto Srimad Bhagavatam and its authoritative commentaries by important acharyas, along with other Puranas and Sanhitas like Brahma Samhita etc." (Letter to Mr. S. L. Dhani, November 14, 1976)

Another important point is that Goloka Vrindvana is described in the Puranas as being outside of the shell of the universe. Goloka is not part of the material world. The above presentation at the TOVP does not indicate Goloka as being outside of a round-shaped universe.

I am not a designer, artist, or construction engineer, but surely it cannot be so difficult to construct something around the main features to create the idea of the universal globe. The idea needs to be impressed that we are confined within a measurable area of the spiritual sky. If the above image is what the pilgrims are meant to see when they enter the TOVP building, they will not get the right impression of the universe from this exhibit. Images construct a certain perception of reality. The globe image has created a false construct of reality. We do not want to create another false construct of reality by presenting erroneous or incomplete images of the universal form.

By understanding that the universe has a specific edge or boundary, one can also understand that the universe has a center, indeed the Earth is the center of the universe and Mount Meru is the center of the Earth. The distance from the center of the universe to the edge of the universe is just under 2 billion miles [the universe has a total diameter of just under 4 billion miles]. The Bhu-mandala must be presented as the true shape and size of the Earth with the gigantic Mount Meru in the center forming the axis mundi. The true position and location of our known Earth on the Bhu-mandala and our specific position in relation to Mount Meru must likewise be taught at the TOVP as a factual reality. This is the great revelation of the Puranas, and this is the message that is meant to be preached by ISKCON to the rest of the world via the Temple of Vedic Planetarium. As mentioned, the TOVP will not create a revolution in the world simply by presenting the Earth as a globe in space and the rest of Bhu-mandala in another dimension; the revolution will begin with the news that there is no Earth globe, and that our known area of the Earth continues into a greater Earth circle.

When the Bhu-mandala is properly presented at the Temple of Vedic Planetarium, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness will regain its credibility, integrity, and rightful place as a powerful spiritual movement that reveals the truth of both the material and spiritual world. I don't mean to make the naive assertion that the Hare Krishna society will gain credibility with the governments and controlled media of the world, nor (for the moment) with the mass of people who are helplessly indoctrinated and conditioned by such forces, but the Hare Krishna society will certainly regain credibility with Sri-Krishna by taking on the asura-led governments of the world who are keeping the people in a false Earth paradigm. The issue will force the devotees to get real. Regaining credibility with Sri-Krishna is what the devotee community should deem important. Some members of ISKCON may feel that the society's credibility will be entirely destroyed by any denial of the Earth-globe ideology. There are those within the Hare Krishna society who will 'freak-out' at the prospect of a headline such as "Hare Krishna society says the Earth is flat" ever hitting the mainstream news, and of being associated with such an idea. But since Srimad Bhagavatam describes the Earth as circular and flat (a continual horizontal plane), why would a devotee of Sri-Krishna fear the news being declared to the world? If Srimad Bhagavatam is the truth, then why would the truth make one fearful or angry? The truth can only make an untruthful person fearful or angry, because when truth arises, one's falsehood and pretension are revealed. The question of the Earth will certainly separate the wheat from the chaff—at least in regards to those who will or won't accept the Earth as it is described in Srimad Bhagavatam.

For the record, let's all be clear what we mean by 'flat-Earth'. Srimad Bhagavatam does not say the flat-Earth is a flat version of the Earth-globe floating in space; Srimad Bhagavatam says there is no Earth globe floating in space to begin with, and that the flat-Earth refers to the colossal Bhu-mandala. Our known area of the Earth is located near the center of this colossal Earth plane—some hundreds of thousands of miles south of Mount Meru. If presented with faith, courage, and intelligence, the Bhu-mandala will certainly put the Hare Krishna movement back in the news again, and provide a platform to completely destroy the asura ideological system that keeps the people spiritually and materially enslaved in a false Earth paradigm. When properly presented, the unveiling of the Bhu-mandala will bring about a new Earth paradigm that will raise the consciousness to such a point that very dramatic and miraculous changes in the world will follow. We shall discuss this point further in the following papers.

Since design in the universe points to a designer God, it is imperative on the part of the asuras that knowledge of the design and form of the universe be kept hidden or obscured. Without a doubt there will be enormous influence exerted from asuras both within and without the Hare Krishna movement to prevent Bhu-mandala being presented as it is at the Temple of Vedic Planetarium. Since the description of Bhu-mandala takes up most of the narrative in Vedic cosmological accounts, it obviously has to be represented in some way, and can't be simply left out; however, the asuras will certainly try their damnedest to present Bhu-mandala as vaguely as possible and to mix the Earth-globe ideology into the equation. The last thing that the asuras want to hear preached is the Srimad Bhagavatam's actual message, namely that there is no Earth globe floating in space, and that our known part of the Earth is just a small part of a greater flat-Earth landscape. Already we have seen how the TOVP's representatives have presented Bhu-mandala in such a vague and impersonal way that Srimad Bhagavatam's description of our location on a greater Earth circle has been entirely lost. Since the Vedic Puranas are the only source of spiritual literature that reveal the actual design or form of the universe with its characteristics and measurements, it is essential that Sri-Krishna's devotees counteract the asuric ideology of a center-less, Godless, impersonal universe by accurately and boldly presenting the magnificent 'intelligent design' of Bhu-mandala within the Temple of Vedic Planetarium. The continuation of any Earth globe ideology within the TOVP will simply reinforce the asura cosmology that creates physical and spiritual disorientation and bewilderment for the people of the Earth, making them easy prey for the asuras that gain ascendancy in the age of Kali.

By presenting the true location of our world on the flat-Earth plane, one of the major ideological illusions of the asuras will be broken, and a new wave of Krishna consciousness will emerge. The new wave of Krishna consciousness will be characterized by a true sense of friendliness and equality towards all souls (SB 4.11.13). It will not bear the hallmarks of the present "churchianity" that ISKCON has become. Authoritarianism, bureaucracy, elitism, pride, arrogance, untruthfulness, hypocrisy, pretentiousness, etc., are all features of the demoniac system that will soon be displaced. As Lord Varaha once rescued the Earth from the demon Hiranyaksha, the Earth will once again be saved from the asuras by the Golden Avatari in the form of the sankirtan movement. Sri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu manifested his form of Sri Varaha to Murari Gupta indicating that he would again raise and protect the Earth:

    "I accepted the incarnation of Varaha to lift the material world out of the waters of nescience. Know Me to be the ultimate goal of the Vedas. The purpose of My present incarnation is to propagate the congregational chanting of the Holy Names of Krishna. In this incarnation, as in other incarnations, I will annihilate the miscreants for the protection and pleasure of My devotees." (Sri Chaitanya Bhagavata, Madhya-kanda, chapter 3)

Varaha rescuing the Earth-circle and killing the demon Hiranyaksha

In following papers we shall discuss how the present asura system of government will be eventually displaced by Sri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's sankirtan movement. The revealing of the true size and shape of the Earth via the Mayapur Temple of Vedic Planetarium will mark the beginning of a new cosmological paradigm that will accompany the next wave of Krishna consciousness.


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