Jayadvaita Swami's Explanation of Gita Changes, Part 2
BY: SUN STAFF
May 06, USA (SUN) 1986 Letter from Jayadvaita Swami explaining the rationale behind changes to Srila Prabhupada's Bhagavad Gita As It Is.
Bhagavad-gita As It Is - Second Edition
Date: July 1986
From: Jayadvaita Swami
To: Amogha Lila
His Grace Sriman Amogha Lila Dasa, 188 New Chetty Street, Colombo 13,
ISKCON Padayatra Sankirtan Bhavan, P.O. Jhusi Allahabad, 221 506, U.P.,
Dear Amogha Lila Prabhu,
Please accept my most humble obeisances. All glories to Srila Prabhupada.
I am in due receipt of your letter, dispatched June 21, and have noted
the contents carefully.
You've heard strongly expressed objections to the second edition of Bhagavad-gita
As It Is, and you've written to me because you want to investigate the matter
I've been silent about this, so as not to overindulge in the animalistic
propensity of defending. But since you've raised good questions, it's my
duty to answer.
First: To my knowledge, Srila Prabhupada never asked us to re-edit
As you know, and as we kept in mind while doing the work, Srila Prabhupada
staunchly opposed needless changes.
You write that Kirtanananda Maharaja told you I regretted having done
the editing and that if I'd known of his feelings or read his paper commenting
on the work I wouldn't have done it at all.
This is a misunderstanding. What I regret is that I didn't have the benefit
of Kirtanananda Maharaja's comments while the work was still going on, long
before the book was published.
In fact, a full year before the book went to press, I sent Kirtanananda
Maharaja a letter telling exactly what I was doing and why. I included a
copy of every change I had made in the translations. And I earnestly asked
for any comments, questions, or suggestions he might have. To save us from
exactly the kind of controversy he has now raised, the letter pleaded that
doubts be voiced then, while time was ample and the work was still on our
I sent the same letter not only to Kirtanananda Maharaja but also to
every other member of the GBC, most English-speaking ISKCON sannyasis, various
other senior ISKCON devotees, and every ISKCON temple president in the English-speaking
What I regret, therefore, is that those who now speak out were silent
when their wisdom was sought.
I do *not,* however, regret undertaking the task of revision, and now
I shall tell you why.
As mentioned in the "Note about the Second Edition"
that appears in the book, the editors of the first edition are to be praised.
They did a fine job of making a tough manuscript ready to print.
They also, however, made lots of omissions, goofs, and blunders, which
I see no need to immortalize in print.
I suppose that what disturbs some devotees most is the changes in the
translations. As you know, Srila Prabhupada considered the translations
less important, and so do I. For me the more important revisions, therefore,
are the ones in the purports. Of these there are easily several hundred.
To answer your letter, I spent an hour or so going through the book to
pull out some samples for you. To examine them you should have before you
a copy of both editions--the old one and the new. To look at the samples
carefully may take you a couple of hours. But it's the best way I know to
answer your questions, and I'm sure you'll find your time well spent.
There are different categories of corrections.
- SIMPLE BOO-BOO?S
For example, simple obvious spelling errors. Who would be willing to
insist that the reference to the province of "Behar" (old edition,
page 185) should not be changed to "Bihar"?
Chapter 16, verses 1-3, purport. Read the first line of the last paragraph
in the old edition. Despite what the purport says, the transcendental qualities
add up to 26, not 16. Someone typed a "1" instead of a "2,"
so the count is off by 10.
- MISSING EVIDENCE
Here's something more serious. In the old edition, dozens and dozens
of Srila Prabhupada's Sanskrit quotations--Vedic evidence,
sastra-pramana--have simply been edited out.
In the Introduction of the new edition, for example, here are some of
the quotations you'll find restored:
- pg. 8: mayadhyaksena prakrti, etc.
- pg. 12: muktir hitva anyatha rupam, etc.
- pg. 14: parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate
- pg. 17: yad gatva na nivartante, etc.
- pg. 26: visnu-sakti para prokta, etc.
- pg. 28: kirtaniyah sada harih
- pg. 30: tad vijnanartham, etc.
These are Srila Prabhupada's words. The Introduction is still available
on tape, and you can hear them for yourself.
And if you want something bigger, how about this: The old edition, on
page 27, adds a verse Srila Prabhupada didn't speak (nehabhikrama-naso
'sti) and then leaves out every one of the renowned verses from the
Gita-mahatmya with which Srila Prabhupada's original Introduction
I'm not even slightly sorry that these verses have now been restored.
Throughout the new edition the editors have restored dozens and dozens
of Sanskrit quotations, large and small, the old edition simply
For a few more examples, you can look at the purports to the following
verses: 2.43, 2.56 (two quotations), 2.63, 9.4, 9.6 (three quotations),
9.7, 9.9, 9.11 (new edition, pg. 469--three quotations), 9.12, 10.15, 11.43
(three quotations). In 11.54, no fewer than eight quotations have been
And there are dozens and dozens more. The verses you now see are not
editorial speculations, guesses, helpful additions or any other such nonsense.
They are the very words of our acarya, jumbled by typists and scratched
out by editors in the 1960's, now restored to their place in Srila Prabhupada's
- POINTS WITHOUT PINS
Here's another, related sort of omission. Sometimes when Srila Prabhupada
comments on a Sanskrit word, the editors have kept the comments
but edited out the word. For example see the references to avasam
(9.8) and udasina-vat (9.9). Or, at the end of the purport to 13.12:
"The beginning of knowledge, therefore, is amanitva, humility."
To me, these references add immensely to the value of Srila Prabhupada's
purports. With these references, we can clearly see how Srila Prabhupada's
comments directly illuminate specific words of the verse.
And, again, these are not editorial whimsies--they're Srila Prabhupada's
- GLOSSES TOTALLY LOST
Sometimes Srila Prabhupada's comments on a word are *entirely* left
For example, see his comments on the word na (11.54) and tad-arthiyam
(17.27). And these are but examples--there are more.
- SANSKRIT SLIPS
Sometimes the Sanskrit editors just goofed.
- Example: In 7.18, the Sanskrit quoted in the purport doesn't
match the English translation that follows it. Why? Because the Sanskrit
editor supplied the wrong Sanskrit verse. (If you check in Ninth
Canto, you'll see for yourself.) The new edition has it right.
- 7.25. A tired typist or sleepy English editor may have helped screw
this one up. The prayer the old edition attributes to Queen Kunti was never
spoken by Kunti at all. It's from the Isopanisad! The new edition
follows the original manuscript and sets things right.
- 9.29. The Sanskrit editor guessed which verse to put in--and
guessed wrong. The correction is obvious.
- 10.4-5. Is bhayam (old edition, pg. 498) really the word for
- 13.15. Sarvatah pani-padam is not from the Svetasvatara Upanisad
at all. It's from the previous verse of the Gita. When the mistake
is corrected, you get the brilliant Bhaktivedanta purport of the famous,
often misused verse apani-pado javano grahita..
- MANGLED MEANINGS
Sometimes the inexperienced editors just misunderstood the meaning of
a Sanskrit verse.
Example (a small one). 5.2. Aside from being a pretty tough sentence
to read, the old editing of Srila Rupa Gosvami's verse scrambles the meaning.
The verse doesn't mean that things related to Krsna, "though they
are material," should not be renounced. The point is that because
they're related to Krsna, they're not material at all. *That's* why giving
them up, as the Mayavadis do, is dry renunciation.
- GENERAL BLUNDERS
Then there's what you might call good old-fashioned screw-ups.
- 2.1. Have you ever had to explain the last sentence of this purport?
"This realization is made possible by working with the fruitive being
situated in the fixed conception of the self." It's just an editorial
mistake, and it doesn't make a damn bit of sense.
- 2.43. In the last paragraph, what are the "four monthly penances?"
It should be "four-month penances" (caturmasya).
- 3.35. In the old edition, look at the second sentence of the purport.
- >How often we've heard devotees insist that their prescribed duties
must "complement their psychophysical condition." That may be
a good idea.
But look in the new book and see what Srila Prabhupada actually said.
- 7.15. The old purport (bottom of page 383) talks about "the swine
who eat the soil." I always thought that strange. Do hogs really eat
What the original text says is "the hogs who eat the *night* soil."
But some editor put a question mark next to "night," and out
it went. What in the world is "night soil"?
Srila Prabhupada knew--it's a polite name for that good old stuff we all
know hogs love to eat.
- 7.15. Two sentences later, a typist has left out a line. If you want
to find out what Srila Prabhupada said the foolish worker will untiringly
continue to hear of, you have to look in the new edition.
- 10.27. They once took a "sea journey." Hardly. Our old friend
Neal the typist, the college kid who walked into 26 Second Avenue and volunteered
to type, simply heard things wrong. It was "sea churning." But
back in the old days in the storefront, no one knew the real story.
- 10.29. A "planet of trees"? Fa-aar out! But if the Swami
says so, it must be right. Sorry, boys. Srila Prabhupada never said so.
It's Neal the typist again. It's a planet of ancestors (pitas),
or pitrs (pronounced "pi-trees").
- 10.35. Where has the Lord "already explained" that the Sama-veda
is "rich with beautiful songs"? Ask Neal the typist. Or else
look in the new book and read things right.
- 13.2. In the old edition (page 621) you'll read "Sometimes we
understand that I am happy, I am mad, I am a woman, I am a dog, I am a
cat; these are the knowers." This is straight-out nonsense. It's not
right, it's not sacred, and it's not the words of my spiritual master.
- 15.2. Is the old second paragraph of this purport supposed to stay
screwed up and incomprehensible forever?
- 18.31-32. Back in the 60's, the editors somehow changed the word "ignorance"
to "passion" and put the purport in the wrong place. Should it
- TOO HELPFUL
It's the job of the editor to try to help the reader. But sometimes
an editor can be too helpful.
- Example: 5.28. In the old second paragraph you'll find a reference
to the pratyahara (breathing) process. On the manuscript you can
clearly see that the editor, for the benefit of readers new to yoga,
has penned in the parenthetical word "breathing." But pratyahara
is not the breathing process at all--it's the process of withdrawing the
senses from their objects. The breathing process is pranayama. Should
this goof be granted sanctity merely for its presence on the page?
- 15.2. "The Gandharvas (fairies)." The editor is being
helpful again. But is Narada Muni really a "fairy"?
9. THE RED-PENNED PURPORT
When our editors back in the 60's came to a passage too hard for them
to figure out, they did what was expedient--crossed it out and kept going.
Sometimes it was just a few words, sometimes a sentence or a few sentences,
sometimes a whole paragraph.
Sometimes, while trying to prune a paragraph, they cut off valuable
fruits and flowers. Sometimes they seem to have thought that Srila Prabhupada
was being too heavy. Or sometimes a passage just got inadvertently left
- 8.11. The old edition loses the first two sentences of the purport.
- 8.6, 8.13, 8.14, 8.19. When Srila Prabhupada spoke the whole mahamantra,
the typist often just typed some shortcut, like "HK etc." The
new edition restores the full mantra: Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna
Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. Just
see how in this chapter--"Attaining the Supreme"--Srila Prabhupada
repeatedly emphasizes the chanting of these 16 holy names.
- 8.28. In the new edition, start reading on page 445, from "The
words idam viditva..." and go on till the purport ends. Just
see all that has been restored. And appreciate, especially, Srila Prabhupada's
beautiful exposition of how Krsna consciousness grows, from sraddha
up to prema.
- 9.26. The first edition loses the whole first paragraph.
- 11.52. In the new edition, page 599, on the last few lines of the page,
the fool who offers respect only to the impersonal "something"
within Krsna finally gets what he deserves--Srila Prabhupada's boot in
- 13.5. Srila Prabhupada's gloss on chandobhih has returned to the page,
the next paragraph now makes proper sense, and the last paragraph has been
- 13.19. Two whole paragraphs lost! For me, Srila Prabhupada's summary
of verses 6 through 18 opened up a new understanding of a chapter that
had long perplexed me.
- 16.7. The history of religious editing is not without its humor. Srila
Prabhupada's manuscript clearly says, "One should always be careful
to keep his body clean by bathing, brushing teeth, shaving, changing clothes,
But back in the 60's, we kept our beards--and trimmed off the word shaving.
You've now had a glimpse of the hundreds of omissions and mistakes in
the first edition of Bhagavad-gita As It Is. Should what was lost
have stayed permanently lost? Should what was screwed up in the 1960's have
stayed screwed up forever? I leave it to you to decide.
One final point. The first edition of Bhagavad-gita As It Is not
only preserved errors and omissions but actually *multiplied* them when
the book was translated into other languages. What does a translator do
with something like "the fruitive being situated in the fixed conception
of the self?" A translator faced with a passage that seems wrong or
doesn't make sense does just what the English editors did in the 1960's--he
leaves it contradictory or confusing, he guesses and speculates, or he scratches
If you'd like any more information about the second edition of Bhagavad-gita
As It Is, please feel free to ask.
I'm grateful you've taken the care to inquire.
Since both Sridhara Maharaja in Bombay and Ravindra Svarupa Prabhu have
asked me for similar information, I'm sending copies of this letter to them.
Mail can reach me here at Jhusi up to September 25. Then I'll go to Bombay
to renew my visa. Padayatra will be starting by then, and our mailing address
will be c/o ISKCON Delhi.
Hoping this finds you in good health and a joyful mood,
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