Sri Navadwip Panjika begins, "For the welfare of everyone Srila Jiva Goswami Prabhupada has written his Sri Hari-namamrta grammar with the objective of cultivating Harinam, so in the same way Sri Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami has written Sri Navadwip Panjika accordingly using different names of Visnu for the months (Masa), fortnights (Paksas), and days (Varam), to cultivate Sri Harinam Kirtan."
According to Navadwip Panjika the year is called "Candra Varsa" cyclic year of the moon, which goes from Krsna Pratipat after the Gaura Purnima to the next Gaura Purnima, this is a moon cycle of one year Candra Varsa.
These months are similarly divided starting from the Pratipat of Krsna Paksa through to the Purnima, full moon, this period is considered one month. The months are as follows 1/. Visnu, Caitra (March-April) 2/. Madhusudhana, Vaisakha (April-May) 3/. Trivikrama, Jyestha (May-June) 4/. Vamana, Ashadha (June-July) 5/. Sridhara, Sravan (July-August) 6/. (H)Rishikesh, Bhadrapad (August-September) 7/. Padmanabha, Aswina (September-October) 8/. Damodar, Kartika (October-November) 9/.Keshava, Mrgasirsa (November-December) 10/. Narayana, Pusya (December-January) 11/. Madhava, Magha (January-February) and 12/. Govinda, Phalguna (February-March), these twelve months are considered to consist as one Gaurabda. After every two years and eight months there is also another month which is added called Purushottama Adika Masa. This additional month starts from the sukla pratipat to the Amavasya, some materialistic persons call this month "Malmas" and during this month they refrain from any works, karmanas. However the pure Vaisnavas respect this month as being a sacred and thus engage in all activities of devotional service during this month.
The days of the week are also given various names of Visnu, Sarva vasudev is Ravi var (Sunday), Sarva shivasankarshan is Som var (Monday), Sthanu Pradyumna is Mangal var (Tuesday), Yuta Aniruddha is Budh var (Wednesday), Adikaranadasai is Brhaspati var (Thursday), Nidhi Garvadasai is Sukra var (Friday), Abboy ksirodaksai is Sani var (Saturday).
The fortnights are also renamed as radyumna Krsna the dark fortnight (Krsna Paksa), and Aniruddha Gaur, the light fortnight, Sukla Paksa).
The names of the tithis according to the ames of Visnu are as follows; Pratipat - Brahma, Dwitiya - Sripati, Tritiya - Visnu, Caturthi - Kapil, Pancami - Sridhar, Sasthi - Prabhu, Saptami - Damodar, Astami - rishikesha, Navami - Govinda, Dasami - Madhusudhana, Ekadasi - Yudhar, Dwadasi - Gadi, Trayodasi - Sankhi, Caturdasi - Padmi, Purnima and Amavasya - Chakri.
Names of the Nakshatras 1/. Aswin, Dhata, /. Bharani, Krsna, 3/. Krittika, Visma, 4/. Rohini, Vishnu, 5/. Mrgasira, Basatkar, 6/. rdra, Vutavabya Vabatprabhu, 7/. Punavasu, Vutvrt, 8/. Pusya, Vutkrt, 9/. Aslesa, Vaba, 10/. Magha, Vutatma, 11/. Purva Phalguni, Vutavabana, 12/. Uttara Phalguni, Abbyakta, 13/. Hasta, Pundarikaksa, 14/. Citra, Vismakarma, 15/. Swati, Sacisraba, 16/. Vishakha, Sadvhava, 17/. Anuradha, Vaban, 18/. Jyestha, Varta, 19/. Mula, Prabhava, 20/. Purvashadha, Prabhu, 21/. Uttarashadha, Iswara, 22/. Sravana, Apramayo 23/. Dhanistha, Hrsikesh, 24/. Satabhisakam, Padmanabha, 25/.Purvabhadrapada, Amarprabhu, 26/. Uttarabhadrapada, Aghraya, 27/. Revathi, asvata.
In the Visnudharmattar and Haiasirsha Pancaratra the following names for the sojourn of the sun is named respectively as Balabhadra when the sun is in its northern course or Uttarayana, and Krsna when it is in its Daksinayana or southern course.
The names of the seasons or Rtus are; Vasant (Spring) is Madhava, Grisma (Summer) is Pundarikaksa, Varsa ( ? ) is Vogasai, Sarad (Autumn) is Padmanabha, Hemanata ( ? ) is Hrshikesh, and Shiit (Winter) is Devatrivikram.
This Panjika is also designed for use with Upavas, Parva, and Utsava, or fasting, festivals, rites and feasts according to Vaisnava Smriti Sri Hari Bhakti Vilas. The directions sanctioned in this Panjika give the reasons for and method as to why devotees fast on certain days such as Ekadasi, Mahadwadasi, and the appearance and disappearance days of great Vaisnavas, and Gurus. If it is any great Vaisnavas appearance day is followed by Mahadwadasi, it is the duty of the devotee to fast on the following day, the Dwadasi and not on the Ekadasi. However if the appearance day falls on an Ekadasi where there is no Mahadwadasi following, then the fasting should be done on the Ekadasi and parana on the day of Dwadasi. When there is no Mahadwadasi in the appearance of Vaisnava auspicious occasions, it has been mentioned in Hari Bhakti Vilas that fasting is carried out on the Ekadasi whereasthe actual worship, Pujas, and offerings of bhoga to Deities of Visnu are to be offered on the Dwadasi. This subject is clearly understandable when reference is made as an example to Sri Vaman Dwadasi, (as mentioned in the Panjika). Throughout this book the directives of Sri Hari Bhakti Vilas have been followed. On grasping the teachings of Gaudiya Vaisnavas Acaryas mentioned herein we fast on the holy days of the appearance day of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Sri Baladeva prabhu, and Sri Nityananda prabhu hinged on the tithi based observance. Accordingly the requirements are described for the observances in this Panjika. Fortunately,now some other panjikas have statred to following our proceedures.
DETERMINATION FASTING COMPARTMENTS BASED ON THE JUDGEMENT ON PENETRATION AND OVERLAPPING.
Penetration or overlapping is classified as prepenetration and postpenetration. Prepenetration is again classified as Suryodhayabidhwa (sunrise penetration); Arundayabidhwa (sunray appearance penetration or bidhwa); and Madhya Ratibidhwa (midnight penetration or bidhwa). Although midnight penetration has taken its place in the Nimbarka sampradaya, respected pujyapad, Srila Sanatana Goswami in his Hari Bhakti Vilas has shown in his notes that there is no valid reason for acceptance of that. Amongst the remaining two predhwas, Arunodayabidhwa should be considered in connection with the Ekadasi fasting compartment (vasar) or Harivasar. Since the first step of Dwadasi is included in the room, or compartment of Ekadasi, it is also to be considered or defined as Harivasar. Except (beside) Harivasar it is said that on the appearances of God, Hari, only the sunrise bidhwa and not the sunray bidhwa is to be given up.
This is a general principal to abandon impure penetration or overlapping.
According to the opinion of some unwise persons avoidence of bidhwa in all cases means avoidance of Arunodaya bidhwa. That this is completely incorrect can be proven by the statements of Sri Hari Bhakti Vilas and the directives of Srila Sanatan Goswami regarding the determination of Janmastami.
It has been explained in 12 vilas, shloka 120 of Sri Hari Bhakti Vilas:- ..atha sampernalaksane biddhalaksanam
"That the complete observation is the most intelligent, and of most importance." pratipat pravrtaya sarva udayadudayo rave, sampurna eiti vikhataa harivasar vargita (HBV. 12. 315.)
"Accordingly on the pratipat there should be sampurna, complete avoidance of the previous tithi, be it Amavasya or Purnima at the time of the sunrise in this way avoiding Harivasar."
Described in the Skanda Purana that Pratipad tithis are considered complete if it covers six "dandas" from one sunrise to the next sunrise. Even this is not applicable to Ekadasi. If it stays 2 Muhurthas before sunrise, then Ekadasi is called complete. Form this it is clear that except Ekadasi, in other tithis if that is, if the previous tithi enters during sunrise, then this one is called bidhwa or penetrated. As regards to Ekadasi, if Dasami enters during sunray bidhwa, during 2 Muhurthas or 4 dandas = 1hour and 36 mins' of sunrise, then it would be considered Arunodaya bidhwa (prebidhwa). Prebidhwa Nanda (Ekadasi through Sravan nakshatra, has to be rejected. In the same way Janmastami, if Rohini is already connected. We are requested to abandon due to prebidhwa. (HBV..15.361).
In the footnote of the above mentioned verse, Srila Sanatana Goswami has advised very clearly that IT IS NOT CORRECT to abandon Janmasthami if the penetration by the Saptami comes during the Arunodaya the same way as Ekadasi is done away with if penetrated by Dasami during Arunodaya. The reason for this is that all other tithis other than Ekadasi are complete if started at the sunrise, and thus their penetration during sunrise is to be ignored. It has to be remembered with great care that a tithi without penetration is complete and pure in its self. Its ? to look at a complete tithi as a penetrated one. The Gaudiya Vaisnava Acarya Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana prabhu has written about this very clearly in Prameyar Ratnavali 816 Prameya 9th verse.
Only Ekadasi observation is to be given up in care of Arunodaya; all others including Janmasthami are to be avoided if only penetrated by sunrise penetration. Sri Srimad Prabhupada108 Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Thakur, who is the founder of Sri Caitanya and other Mathas has described in Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya lila 24.337 stanza. "Abandon Ekadasi with Arunodaya bidhwa and other rites with Surjyodaya bidhwa and observe all other Abidhwa vratas (unpenetrated rites). The former causes sin and the later brings devotion to the Supreme Lord."
There are eight Mahadwadasis, among them (Unmavisnu), Unmilani, Vyanjuli, Trisprisha and Paksavardini these are all called Tithi ghatita, or that there cause is tithi based. Jaya, Vijaya, Jayanti, and Papanashini these four are caused due to the nakshatra being still active after the Ekadasi touches the next day (morning).
If any Ekadasi tithi exceed the following morning or Pratakal then the next day is called Unmilani Mahadwadasi. If Ekadasi tithi is not complete and Dwadasi is extended to the Tryodasi then this is called Vyanjuli Mahadwadasi. If any Ekadasi tithi stretches through Dwadasi night to Tryodasi then this is called Trisprisha Mahadwadasi (Triple touched). If Ekadasiundergoes some extension and falls on the Amavasya or Purnima then it is called Paksavardhini Mahdwadasi.
Then we have the nakshatra based observances. If sukla (Gaura) Dwadasi is having as its nakshatra Punarvasu then this is called Jaya Ekadasi. If it is attached to Sravan nakshatra then it is called Vijaya, attached to Rohini nakshatra it is called Jayanti Ekadasi and attached to Pusya (Pausa) nakshatra then it is called Papanasini Ekadasi.
If the Tithi or Nakshatra's maan or quality is the whole night then it is full 60 danda. From the beginning of sunrise on Ekadasi to the next sunrise is 64 dandas. If Dwadasi remains up to sunset on the Punarvasu, Rohini and Pusya nakshatras it is automatically then to be called Mahadwadasi. If Dwadasi continues upto midday with Sravan naskshatra this is to be called Vijay Mahadwadasi.
English translation by Manoj Mitra